Development and peace have been two of the major concerns of national and international political economy for more than fifty years. Yet there is considerable disagreement as to the nature of the relationship between these two economic and political phenomena. Some (such as the “liberals/neoliberals”) argue that development encourages peace. People in better economic condition are less likely to initiate violent conflict both because they are more content and because they have more to lose from the physical danger and economic disruption that war brings. Others say that development discourages peace, either because the continued development of some depends on their forceful suppression or control of others (as the “dependency” theorists argue) or because development increases the capacity to build and mobilize military power (as the “neorealists” argue). Still others (such as the old-line “realists”) argue that development and peace have no significant connection to each other.